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The Doctor's Channel

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These Are The Weirdest Sleep Experiments Ever Conducted

The very nature of being human means that we strive to understand the world around us. Scientists have long considered experiments the best way to test a hypothesis and draw a conclusion. Over the last century, scientists have begun to study sleep more and more. We know it’s necessary yet we don’t fully understand it.  Such a vital function could contain so many important discoveries that we haven’t yet come across. In this infographic we look at some of the most bizarre sleep experiments. What were they, who ran them and why? Did we learn anything from them or did they go horribly wrong? Weird Sleep Experiments infographic by Mattress Online. On an article on Polyphasic Sleep, Yash Pandya also explores the benefits of this new research: As students, we all experience a lack of time at one point or another. There are just so many things on our plate that we must achieve in a short lifespan! Our decisions regarding priorities eventually boil down to a balancing act of the three-legged stool – education, social life, and sleep – with the last one ending up usually being cut. But what if I were to say that there is an alternative to the recommended 8 hours of sleep? Would you go for it? Looking around the world, people usually engage in monophasic sleep, which describes a pattern where one...

How Much Your Health Affects Your Wallet

Smoking, fast food, and lack of exercise can both affect your wellness and your money. Learn how much bad health affects your wallet.  Creating positive health changes in patients can be a difficult task. Once habits are ingrained, they become harder to break. Exposing more pain points for these habits can change a person’s viewpoint and lead them to change. Physical inactivity and poor diet choices continue to surge, and a new motive is needed to help people improve their health. Smoking has been one of the biggest health concerns for decades now, but did you know smoking can cost a person between $6,500 and $13,500 a year? The average cost of a cigarette averages out to be around 31 cents, which comes out to $1,358 a year. The hidden costs come in the form of higher insurance premiums and loss of insurance credits. The total cost of smoking with these factors adds up to a much greater financial sacrifice. The increase in fast food consumption has also made for a costlier lifestyle. Consumers spend an average of $1,200 a year on fast food which can lead up to an additional $5,500 a year in healthcare costs. The caloric increase not only leads to weight gain, but is generally coupled with an inactive lifestyle as well. Physical inactivity, according to the World Health Organization, is the 4th leading risk factor...

How Exactly Does Gene Transfer via AAV Work?

Properly functioning genes within our DNA provide the blueprint for the production of proteins. Mutations affecting those genes can result in proteins with altered or zero function. Using gene transfer techniques might be an effective way to restore function of proteins within cells. Gene transfer can occur via adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors because they can target both dividing and non-dividing cells to correct disease-causing improper protein function. Therapeutic genes loaded inside an AAV can correct defective or missing protein function by injecting the AAV’s therapeutic genetic material to restore function of the proteins. A capsid encases the genetic material of the vector and helps target delivery to specific cells. Once inside the targeted cells, an episome is formed from the vector genome which allows for long-term expression of the therapeutic molecule. AAVs are nonpathogenic and can be administered by intravenous drip or direct injection to target tissues. The unique life cycle of adeno-associated virus (AAV) and its ability to infect both nondividing and dividing cells with persistent expression have made it an attractive vector. An additional attractive feature of the wild-type virus is the lack of apparent pathogenicity. Gene transfer studies using AAV have shown significant progress at the level of animal models; clinical trials have been noteworthy with respect to the safety of AAV vectors. No proven efficacy has been observed, although in some instances, there have been promising observations. In this review, topics in AAV biology are supplemented with...

Skywalker-Inspired Bionic Arm Gives Amputees “A New Hope”

US military veterans Fred Downs and Nardi McCauley lost their arms during service to their country. As participants of a Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) research study, they have become the first individuals to receive the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency’s (DARPA) LUKE arm system. The LUKE (Life Under Kinetic Evolution) bionic arm is a novel robotic prosthesis that attaches to the amputee’s limb and replicates many functions of a human arm with the help of sensors and an easy-to-use controller. This device allows users to control multiple joints simultaneously and performs a variety of grips with adjustable grip forces. This technology was made possible by the Army Research Office and funding assistance from the US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command (USAMRMC). The working prototypes were designed by the DEKA Research and Development Corporation and built by Mobius Bionics, a commercial-scale manufacturer borne out out of the VA’s development efforts after years of research and testing. US military veterans Fred Downs and Nardi McCauley lost their arms during service to their country. As participants of a Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) research study, they have become the first individuals to receive the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency’s (DARPA) LUKE arm system. The LUKE (Life Under Kinetic Evolution) arm is a novel robotic prosthesis that attaches to the amputee’s limb and replicates many functions of a human arm with the help of sensors and an easy-to-use controller. This device allows users...

5 Student Loan Mistakes All Med Students Should Avoid

Managing student loan and debt requires the same diligence as managing medical school. But with so many things to consider and so many decisions to make, it is far too easy to let student loan decisions slide until “everything’s settled.” Until you’re out of residency, the period of transition for medical students is fraught. Even with the challenge of medical school behind you, what to do about the question of loans accumulated throughout the process? When dealing with student loans, and with federal student loans in particular, the worst thing you can do is turn and run in the opposite direction. For med school borrowers it can be difficult to work out a repayment plan while still living on a resident’s budget, but by planning early it’s possible to set yourself up for a debt-free future in only a couple of years. Here are a handful of mistakes all doctors should avoid when deciding how to pay back their student loans. Failure to Consolidate Loans First, there are several important differences between federal student loans and other loans. General student loans function like other debt. Federal loans qualify for a variety of important repayment options. This makes consolidation an important first step. Failure to consolidate at the start of residency is a potentially costly mistake because of the special treatment afforded qualifying federal loans. Among the most significant benefits...

When Will Science Fiction Become Science Fact?

What can we expect to see in the next few decades as medicine progresses? Have your favorite science fiction films and medical television shows predicted the future of medicine? You might think that science fiction and movies are just stories. Pie in the sky. But often, ideas for future procedures are dreamt up in the films we call entertainment. Science fiction has officially become science fact. They could be seen as predictions and demonstrations of how medicine and biotechnology might look in the future. Exploring is what humans do best and if these movies are anything to go by, we have some great inventions ahead of us, that aren’t as “pie in the sky” as you might think. In this infographic from GapMedics, we look at some of the movies that could shape medical technology and change the way we live and treat illnesses in the future. Make sure to also check out Yash Pandya’s series of “Movies that Illuminated The Medical Field!” Parts One, Two, and Three! Medicine has intrigued cinema for as far back as we can remember. From the gruesome depictions of surgical procedures to the long struggles against chronic ailments, the medical field is omnipresent in movies. Furthermore, given the current struggles in medicine, including antibiotic resistance and our inability to manage all diseases, a look back is well warranted to put things in perspective and...

Synthetic Cadavers, Because Innovations in Medical Education Aren’t Always Digital

Although there exists no reliable government database about demand for cadavers, sources like National Geographic and The Economist have reported on data compiled from individual agencies about shortages of donor bodies, as well as new fields beyond medical education beginning to use cadavers. SynDaver Labs is attempting to ease the possible strain on demand by producing incredibly accurate artificial human and animal bodies – synthetic cadavers. These synthetic cadavers are constructed from thousands of parts by six specialized teams; skeletal, skin, muscles, organs, vasculature, and final assembly. All of this detail allows the cadavers to mimic organic bodies by simulating breathing, bleeding, and closely replicating the textures of individual body parts. When they’re not in use, they must be stored in water because they are composed primarily of water, just like us. Click here to learn more about this medical education tool from SynDaver Labs. This line ranges from educational models for anatomical reference to advanced surgical simulators which breathe, bleed and react like live patients. Our synthetic humans are tailored to meet a wide range of needs and can be customized with variety of pathologies and injuries based on patient images, CAD drawings or simple descriptions. Individual tissues have been developed over the course of the last two decades to accurately mimic the interaction between tissue tools and live tissue. Because of this, they are an ideal substitute...

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