research

Bizarre Skin Conditions That You Never Want To Get – #7

What is the largest organ system in the body? The Integumentary System!   Yes, we all know this well-known fact since our elementary and middle school days. Our skin covers the entire surface area of our body, serving various different functions. From temperature regulation to being the first line of defense for the immune system, our soft skin is often our best friend.   However, we may encounter some quite tenacious pathogens that can lead to some quite gruesome skin conditions, some of which you should truly pray that you never get. I will be going over the top 10 most intriguing integumentary ailments that I have come across, one at a time over the next several articles, continuing forward with the next one here at #7.   7. Vitiligo Vitiligo is a condition that results in the development of white patches on the body. It usually affects the generalized skin area with possible involvement of the mucous membranes and the eyes. The most common sites include the armpits, around the mouth, the navel, genitals, and rectal area. While the cause of vitiligo is idiopathic (unknown), it is believed that an autoimmune process might serve to explain the manifestation of this disease. For instance, the consequent presence of a condition such as hyperthyroidism may make a person more prone to have vitiligo.   In terms of the possibility and...

March is Colon Cancer Awareness Month!

Source   March is Colon Cancer Awareness Month and it is an ideal time to get candid about the third most common cancer diagnosed among men and women in the United States. The American Cancer Society estimates that in 2016, over 95,000 Americans will be diagnosed with Colon Cancer, and of those diagnosed, over half will die from Colon Cancer. Colon cancer normally develops in adults 50 years of age and older from polyps in the large intestines. Colon cancer screening helps save lives by detecting polyps early so they can be removed before they become cancerous. Early detection through screening is invaluable and continues to play a pivotal role in the lives of over 1 million colorectal cancer survivors across the nation.   When it comes to regular screening for the average American, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommend testing during the following intervals: • Colonoscopy every 10 years • Double-contrast barium enema every 5 years • Fecal occult blood test (FOBT) every year (colonoscopy is needed if results are positive) • Flexible sigmoidoscopy every 5 to 10 years, usually with stool testing (FOBT) done every 1 to 3 years • Virtual colonoscopy every 5 years     A Fecal Occult Blood Test is a stool test and perhaps one the simplest Colon Cancer screening procedures. Blood in the stool is a classic indicator of the presence...

Bizarre Skin Conditions That You Never Want To Get – #8

What is the largest organ system in the body? The Integumentary System!   Yes, we all know this well-known fact since our elementary and middle school days. Our skin covers the entire surface area of our body, serving various different functions. From temperature regulation to being the first line of defense for the immune system, our soft skin is often our best friend.   However, we may encounter some quite tenacious pathogens that can lead to some quite gruesome skin conditions, some of which you should truly pray that you never get. I will be going over the top 10 most intriguing integumentary ailments that I have come across, one at a time over the next several articles, continuing forward with the next one here at #8.     8. Hypertrichosis If you want to see a werewolf in real life, then this disease is unfortunately the right one that can give you that end product. Hypertrichosis is a medical condition that results in the unexpected and excessive growth of hair in either localized or generalized areas of the body where hair would not usually grow. The two major types of hypertrichosis include acquired and congenital. Potential causes include a malignancy, certain medications, and malnutrition (anorexia nervosa), with individuals developing excessive hair growth manifestations commonly on the face, nose, and the eyelids.   The congenital form of this disease...

Bizarre Skin Conditions That You Never Want To Get – #9

What is the largest organ system in the body? The Integumentary System!   Yes, we all know this well-known fact since our elementary and middle school days. Our skin covers the entire surface area of our body, serving various different functions. From temperature regulation to being the first line of defense for the immune system, our soft skin is often our best friend.   However, we may encounter some quite tenacious pathogens that can lead to some quite gruesome skin conditions, some of which you should truly pray that you never get. I will be going over the top 10 most intriguing integumentary ailments that I have come across, one at a time over the next several articles, continuing forward with the next one here at #9.   9. Argyria Argyria is a clinical condition caused by an individual’s contact with or ingestion of silver salts. Workers involved in silver mining or individuals taking medications that contain a high level of silver salts are most prone to this condition. The primary manifestation of the disorder centers on a bluish-grey appearance of the skin and mucous membranes.   More specifically, the onset starts with a grey-brown staining of the gums followed by more widespread discoloring of the skin. Cutaneous pigmentation can be slate-grey, metallic, or blue-grey in color. This form of hyperpigmentation is most common in sun-exposed areas. In the...

Bizarre Skin Conditions That You Never Want To Get – #10

(Warning to the non-med students, graphic images ahead)   What is the largest organ system in the body? The Integumentary System!   Yes, we all know this well-known fact since our elementary and middle school days. Our skin covers the entire surface area of our body, serving various different functions. From temperature regulation to being the first line of defense for the immune system, our soft skin is often our best friend.   However, we may encounter some quite tenacious pathogens that can lead to some quite gruesome skin conditions, some of which you should truly pray that you never get. I will be going over the top 10 most intriguing integumentary ailments that I have come across, one at a time over the next several articles, starting with the first one here at #10.   10. Necrotizing Fasciitis Necrotizing fasciitis is one of the hallmark bacterial infections in the field of dermatology. Classically known as a “flesh-eating infection,” some of the more common perpetrators include Klebsiella, Clostridium, and E. coli, with group A Streptococcus bacteria being the most prominent culprits.   Starting with intense pain and tenderness in the initial area of infestation on the skin and at the deeper muscle level, the infection can spread along the fascia (covering of the muscle) and up through the subcutaneous layer. Antecedent trauma or surgery can usually be identified as...

How to Stay Up To Date on Research in Your Field

  If you are in any research field and are currently working on a project, you’ll need to stay up to date on published research.  But how do you find the newly published research literature without doing manual search after manual search?  There are few different options.   Subscribe to the RSS feed of your search. Conduct a search for your topic of choice on your favorite database (Google Scholar, PubMed, ScienceDirect, etc.) You sign up for a RSS feed of any type of search you make (i.e., title, author, etc.) Each database should have a link to subscribe to the RSS feed for the search.  Once you have the RSS feed link, open your favorite reader website (I use Feedly) and paste your RSS feed link into the add content option.  When a paper is published that shows up in your search, it will automatically populate into your blog reader.  Then when you have time, you can browse the latest published work on your research topic.   Subscribe to the RSS feed of your favorite journals. Many journals offer a RSS feed option that you can also paste into your reader.  Be selective about which journals you subscribe to, otherwise you might just be scrolling through article after article that is useless to your research.   Sign up for search or journal alerts. This is similar to subscribing...

Microdosing and Drug Discovery

Understanding Microdosing The practice of microdosing has gained momentum in recent years and is defined as using 1 percent of a pharmacologically active dose. The method is believed to have the potential to better obtain personalized medicines for the treatment of a variety of diseases. Since administration of these doses are so low, the drugs are unlikely to produce whole-body effects but have concentrations adequately permitting absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. So in effect, microdose studies are not intended to produce any adverse pharmacologic effects in humans, but may produce useful pharmacokinetic information to assist in further development of the compound.[1] The potential for decreased Research & Development expenditures has made microdosing an attractive strategy, particularly in the case of resources spent on nonviable drug candidates and animal testing. Microdose studies are conducted in the Phase 0 clinical trial. During this stage, issues pertaining to drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics are addressed. Microdosing, therefore, allows not only for the selection of the drug candidates more likely to be developed successfully, but also for the determination of the first dose for the subsequent Phase I clinical trial.[2][3]   Competing Challenges With these potential benefits, more research is required to guarantee the accuracy and efficiency of microdosing. It is important to remember that there is an assumption of linearity between the microdose and the full dose drug. The human body’s response to...